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Past Participle

What is the past participle? What is the difference between past participle and present participle? How do you make a past participle?

Past Participle
1) A past participle refers to the form of a verb which is used in forming perfect and passive tenses (and sometimes used as an adjective).

Olivia has lived in Greece for 4 years.

2) We usually add -(e)d to the base form of the regular verb to form the past participle.

Jun has just painted this picture. (present perfect, active voice)

This picture was painted by Jun a month ago. (past simple, passive voice)

There is no pattern as to forming the past participle of the irregular verbs. You should always consult a dictionary.

Jun has just painted this picture. (present perfect, active voice)

This picture was painted by Jun a month ago. (past simple, passive voice)

We can use the part participle:

a) in the perfect tenses (Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect).

I’ve eaten too much! I can’t move. (present perfect)

James had already left when Pam arrived. (past perfect)

We will have landed by that hour. (future perfect)

b) in the passive voice.

He was driven by genuine interest and curiosity.

This dress was made by a famous Italian designer.

c) as an adjective. In this case, place it before a noun.

Mike has broken his arm. → He has a broken arm now.

Someone has stolen Ann’s purse. → Her purse was stolen.

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