1) An independent (main) clause contains a subject and a predicate and expresses a finished thought. Thus it can stand alone as a sentence.
Sarah wants to study Spanish.
2) The independent clause is a simple sentence when dependent clauses within one sentence are absent.
I don’t want to go to the pub tonight. (simple sentence)
I have to work tomorrow. (simple sentence)
The independent clause forms a complex sentence together with a dependent clause. In this case, use a conjunction.
I don’t want to go to the pub tonight because I have work tomorrow. (complex sentence consisting of an independent clause and a dependent one; two clauses are connected with the help of a conjunction because)
Two independent clauses can form a sentence. In this case, use a semicolon (;).
My little sister doesn’t like reading; she falls asleep within 2 minutes.
Lucy has a business trip in a week; Lucy’s mom will help with the kids.
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