1) A dependent (subordinate) clause gives additional information to the main sentence, thus it cannot stand alone as a separate sentence.
When she comes back home after a long day at work, she likes to take a bath.
2) An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies an adjective, an adverb, or a verb/verb phrase providing additional information.
Give me a call when you get home. (the adverb clause modifies the verb phrase)
An adverb clause can begin with words such as after, because, since, until, when etc.
We were at the beach when it started raining.
Mike is running every day as he is going to run a marathon in a month.
An adverb clause can be placed at the beginning and the end of the sentence without a change in meaning. Use a comma if the clause is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
You should brush your teeth before you go to bed.
Before you go to bed, you should brush your teeth.
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